May 31, Eric Hundman, “Networks and Loyalties: The Social Roots of Military Disobedience in the Sino-French War”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Networks and Loyalties: The Social Roots of Military Disobedience in the Sino-French War”

Eric Hundman

PhD Candidate, Department of Political Science

The University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

Abstract

Obedience to authority is often thought to be paramount in military organizations, but disobedience in various forms—including desertion, foot-dragging, rebellion, compromise, negotiation, surrender, mutiny, and outright insubordination—is common. This project explores such variation by explaining how commanders respond to their orders in war, with a focus on explaining when and why well-trained, ostensibly loyal commanders disobey their superiors. I first lay out a theory of how commanders judge their orders to be inappropriate, then show how the interaction between social network brokerage and loyalty determines their ultimate responses. I substantiate this theory using case studies of two Chinese commanders engaged in the Sino-French War (1883-1885): Xu Yanxu (徐延旭) and Bao Chao (鮑超). Both of these commanders judged their orders to be inappropriate, but one obeyed and the other disobeyed. Drawing on extensive primary-source data gathered from archives in China and Taiwan between 2012-2015, I leverage a variety of personal texts—including private correspondence, internal government documents, military communiqués, media reports, and official pronouncements—to show that these commanders judged their orders and assessed their loyalties as my theory predicts. In order to evaluate these commanders’ brokerage positions, I also constructed novel egocentric network databases that allow me to model changes in these commanders’ social networks over time. I therefore offer a new theory of military disobedience rooted in both structural and purposive mechanisms. Because this project develops new data from an understudied war that China fought in the late 19th century, it also contributes to debates on the strength of the Qing state, the development of China’s military, and China’s international relations.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

May 24, Le Lin, “Interstitial Emergence and The Making of Capitalism: The Thriving of Private Enterprises in China’s Education and Training Industry”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Interstitial Emergence and The Making of Capitalism: The Thriving of Private Enterprises in China’s Education and Training Industry”

Le Lin

PhD Student, Department of Sociology

The University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

Abstract

This paper demonstrates an alternative trajectory of China’s capitalistic development to the existing economics, state-led and new institutional accounts: private economy could emerge and thrive interstitially between the state and the second economy. Drawing on China’s education and training industry (ETI) and education and training organizations (ETOs), I explore why private ETOs thrived and came to leading market status, despite that the Chinese state forbade private ownership and for-profit activities in the ETI. I show there was a particular kind of privately operated ETOs (Cowboy ETOs) that were founded by socially marginalized entrepreneurs and did not conform to the social norms new institutionalists considered as key to private economy development. Being situated in the interstitial space enabled Cowboy ETOs to draw resources and organizational repertoires from both the state and the second economy, providing these ETOs with more ambiguous identities than organizations of competing models. Cowboy ETOs not only benefited directly from their ambiguous identities, but they also gained advantages from the ambiguous regulations’ tolerating their practices. These ETOs outcompeted organizations of other ownerships and came to leading status, facilitating the diffusion of their commercial practices and making the ETI into a commercial industry led by private enterprises. I discuss the implications on state-market relations and origins and size of China’s private economy.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

May 17, Xiao-bo Yuan, “Economies of Exposure: the ethics of concealment and revelation in Chinese Christianities”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Economies of Exposure: the ethics of concealment and revelation in Chinese Christianities”

Xiao-bo Yuan

PhD Student, Department of Anthropology

The University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

Abstract

In this presentation, I draw on fieldwork conducted among Christian communities in the Nanjing metropolitan area to examine how aspirations to publicity or secrecy are expressed and contested within different (registered and unregistered) Christian communities. Through these cases, I examine how publicity and secrecy are calibrated and given value, and how assumptions about the intersections between religious belief and public life give shape to very different Christian institutional forms and practices in China. Rather than considering the above- and underground distinction to be primarily a product of state regulations and churches’ assent or resistance to government monitoring, this paper attends to the labors of Christian institutions in “opening up” and “going underground” as projects of producing specific kinds of (in)visibility. These labors are informed, I suggest, by “economies of exposure” — differentially distributed possibilities for challenging the state’s structures of legibility for religious organizations. Here, I explore the sensibilities toward publicity and secrecy, exposure and concealment, that organize the practices of Christians in China. What forms of publicity do churches aspire to, and how are they motivated to do so? How are conditions of secrecy maintained in other instances? What kinds of Christian subjects are produced through the work of revelation and concealment?

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

May 3, Haifeng Huang, “Information from Abroad: Foreign Media, Selective Exposure, and Political Support in China”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Information from Abroad: Foreign Media, Selective Exposure, and Political Support in China”

Haifeng Huang

Assistant Professor of Political Science

University of California, Merced

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

 

Abstract

What kind of content do citizens in a developing and authoritarian country like to acquire from Western free media? What are the effects of their potentially selective exposure? Through a novel survey experiment with 1200 Chinese Internet users from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds, we find that Chinese citizens with higher pro-Western orientations and lower regime evaluations are more inclined to read content that is positive about foreign countries and/or negative about China. More importantly, because reputable Western media’s reports are generally more balanced and realistic than overly rosy information about foreign countries that popularly circulates in China, reading positive (but realistic) foreign media content about foreign countries improves rather than worsens the domestic evaluations of citizens who self-select such content. Consequently, foreign media may enhance regime stability in an authoritarian country by making regime critics less critical (censorship of foreign media, on the other hand, may backfire). Along the way the article also introduces an innovative experimental procedure that integrates self-selection and random assignment of treatments in a way useful for studies of information effects.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

Apr 19, Junyan Jiang, “Elite Networks and State Capacity: Evidence from A Pollution Control Campaign in China”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Elite Networks and State Capacity: Evidence from A Pollution Control Campaign in China”

Junyan Jiang

PhD Student, Department of Political Science

The University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

 

Abstract

What makes a bureaucracy effective? While much of the literature on state capacity emphasizes the features of the formal bureaucratic institutions, I argue that effective policy implementation also hinges on the mobilization of informal networks, which help carry out high-level directives in localities. Exploiting an unexpected increase in the Chinese central government’s perceived urgency of pollution control in 2007, I empirically examine how connections with higher-level patrons conditioned local agents’ responses to the center’s call for emission reduction. Analyses of both official statistics on emission of sulfur dioxide and satellite data on aerosol optical thickness suggest that cities headed by leaders promoted under the incumbent provincial secretary experienced considerably larger emission reduction than unconnected cities after the campaign was initiated. The total amount of emission reduction associated with informal connections is estimated to be as large as about 2 million tones by the end of 2011. I also find some evidence that connected agents are most effective in localities where the state has strong formal or informal ties with the society, suggesting that internal cohesion and external penetration are complementary in enhancing state capacity.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

Spring 2016 Schedule

EAST ASIA WORKSHOP: POLITICS, ECONOMY & SOCIETY

Spring 2016 Workshop Schedule

April 19

TBD

Junyan Jiang

PhD Student, Department of Political Science

The University of Chicago

May 3

“Information from Abroad: Foreign Media, Selective Exposure, and Political Support in China”

Haifeng Huang

Assistant Professor of Political Science

University of California, Merced

May 17

“Public Undergrounds and Underground Publics: Formations of Christianity and secularism in China”

Xiao-bo Yuan

PhD Student, Department of Anthropology

The University of Chicago

May 24

“Interstitial Emergence and The Making of Capitalism: The Thriving of Private Enterprises in China’s Education and Training Industry”

Le Lin

PhD Student, Department of Sociology

The University of Chicago

May 31

“Identities, Networks, and Loyalties: Drivers of Military Disobedience during the Sino-French War”

Eric Hundman

PhD Student, Department of Political Science

The University of Chicago

 

 

The workshop meets on alternate Tuesdays 4:30-6pm at Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Avenue, unless otherwise specified (*). Abstracts are available on our website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/. Questions and comments should be addressed to the coordinator Yan Xu at xuyan@uchicago.edu.

Faculty Sponsors:

Xi Song (Sociology), xisong@uchicago.edu

Dali Yang (Political Science), daliyang@uchicago.edu

Dingxin Zhao (Sociology), dzhao@uchicago.edu

March 8, Yinxian Zhang, “Chinese Online Nationalism Revisited: Toward a Multi-faceted Understanding of Nationalism”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Chinese Online Nationalism Revisited: Toward a Multi-faceted Understanding of Nationalism”

Yinxian Zhang

Ph.D. Student, Department of Sociology

University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

 

 

Abstract

Scholars of Chinese online nationalism have tended to emphasize the prevalence of a radical nationalism discourse in the cyberspace. They also argue that this discourse calls for a stronger rather than freer China, and that nationalism dampens China’s prospects for democratic reforms. Despite the compelling data in these literature, scholars tend to explore their subject by focusing on either a single case (e.g., popular reaction to the territorial dispute between China and Japan) or a single aspect of nationalism (e.g., only through the lens of foreign issues). Therefore, they will examine people’s online expression of hatred towards Japan for instance, and take this as evidence of the prevalence of online nationalism.

Adopting a different operationalization of nationalism, this paper disaggregates this subject into different components and juxtaposes several cases/topics where nationalist sentiment arises. Using data extracted from a corpus of 27 billion Weibo posts, this paper presents fresh evidence that questions the findings of the previous literature. In particular, my research shows that, although a voice online, nationalism does not dominate the public cyberspace. Moreover, different from the stereotype of a regime defender, the so-called nationalists would often hold diverse opinions towards different issues, criticize state policies and challenge the regime as civil activists. Overall, my research shows that online nationalists by no means form the monolithic social block that is typically depicted by contemporary scholarship and media coverage.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

Feb 16, Zhiying Ma, “Promises and Perils of Guan: Mental Health Care and the Rise of Biopolitical Paternalism in Post-Socialist China”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Promises and Perils of Guan:Mental Health Care and the Rise of Biopolitical Paternalism in Post-Socialist China”

Zhiying Ma

Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology

University of Chicago

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, February 16, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

 

Abstract

Over the last three decades, most psychiatric inpatients in China have been hospitalized against their will, by their families. The first national Mental Health Law, effective since 2013, has reinforced the family’s rights and responsibilities in psychiatric care. The family’s involvement is inscribed in the keyword guan (管), a polysemous word that can refer to caring about and being responsible for another individual, and/or to managing, governing and controlling interpersonal situations. Drawing on 32 months of fieldwork, my research examines the family’s involvement in psychiatry as technical, institutional, and ideological configurations, and explores their implications for the ethics, affects, and political economy of care and population governance in post-socialist China.

In this talk, I will trace the circulation of guan between legal, psychiatric, and familial realms. I argue that a biopolitical paternalism has emerged in post-socialist China that demands and legitimizes the family’s involvement in psychiatric care, particularly by invoking and reconfiguring the family’s role in performing guan. This ideological and practical formation constitutes mentally ill patients as subjects of perpetual risk management. The cultural ethics of paternalism lends ideological legitimacy to the post-socialist state’s population control. Meanwhile, through the recursive circulation of paternalism, the actual work of care and control are relegated to families. This biopolitical paternalism thus produces vulnerabilities and ethical ambivalences within families, as well as aggravating health disparities across the mentally ill population. I will conclude the talk by considering the conceptual and practical implications of biopolitical paternalism.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

Feb 9, George Hong, “A Tale of Two Chinas: the Power-Capital China and the Rights-Deprived China”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “A Tale of Two Chinas: the Power-Capital China and the Rights-Deprived China”

Z. George Hong

Professor of History

Purdue University Calumet

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

Abstract

This presentation – A Tale of Two Chinas – is designed to explore the non-economic price of the Chinese economic development since 1978, highlighting issues such as a power-capital China and rights-deprived China. The first part of this presentation focuses on the institutional price of economic development, with an emphasis on the emergence and development of the power-capital institution. Such an institution is a hybrid political culture that infuses political power and economic capital, as evidenced in the formation of the power-capital economy, growth of the power-capital entrepreneurs and the emergence of the power-capital culture. The second part of this presentation deals with another socio-cultural price of China’s economic growth: the poverty of rights. This is seen in the exclusion and deprivation of disadvantaged groups in the process of economic transition and development. This issue resulted from systematic inequality and injustice and is the main cause for under-representative group’s daunting socio-economic challenges. This is evidenced by the poverty of rights for the urban poor, the poverty of landed rights for farmers and the rights deprivation for migrant laborers. Further evidence includes the Protestant house church members since 1978. Taking advantage of interdisciplinary research on economics, sociology, political science and history, this presentation is intended to supply another analytical dimension of China’s development since 1978, by offering a study of the socio-cultural price and consequences of China’s economic development.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.

Jan 26, Yuhua Wang, “Do Colleges Breed Revolutionaries? Education and Political Engagement in China After Tiananmen”

East Asia Workshop: Politics, Economy and Society presents

 

 “Do Colleges Breed Revolutionaries? Education and Political Engagement in China After Tiananmen”

 

Yuhua Wang

Assistant Professor, Department of Government

Harvard University

4:30-6:00p.m., Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Pick Lounge, 5828 South University Ave.

 

Abstract

Modernization theorists believe that education empowers citizens to take collective actions to challenge authoritarian rule. I present the first quasi-experimental evidence to test the microfoundations of this argument in a noncompetitive authoritarian regime. Exploiting China’s college expansion reform as a natural experiment, I report that higher education increases the overall level of political engagement. However, college education merely has a positive effect on people’s individualistic, expressive behavior, while having no effect on collective actions. China’s young intellectuals also do not differ from the less educated in a range of political attitudes, such as demand for political rights. They care more about local affairs and are more worried about socioeconomic issues, while revealing no particular concerns with broader political issues. I attribute the widespread political apathy among China’s college graduates to the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre and the heightened political control in Chinese universities after 1989.

 

Workshop website: http://cas.uchicago.edu/workshops/eastasia/

Student coordinator: Yan Xu (xuyan@uchicago.edu)

Faculty sponsors: Xi Song, Dali Yang and Dingxin Zhao

 

This presentation is sponsored by the Council on Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences and Center for East Asian Studies. Persons with disabilities who believe they may need assistance please contact the student coordinator in advance.