An Example of Moderation

Estrogen therapy (a hormone replacement treatment) may improve cardiovascular health among women during menopause but may increase postmenopausal women’s risk for heart attacks.

Moderator in question: Age of estrogen therapy initiation

A Moderator

  • reveals HETEROGENEITY in a relationship.
  • “affects the direction and/or strength of the relation” between an independent variable and a dependent variable” (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p.1174).
  • could be a subpopulation identifier (e.g., demographic features)
  • could be a contextual characteristic (e.g., distinct cultures, organizational structure, demographic composition of a community, density of a social network
  • could be a concurrent, preceding, or succeeding treatment

A Moderation Analysis

examines for WHOM and under WHAT CONDITIONS a risk factor operates or an intervention works (Kreameret al, 2002).