Methodological papers in PDF form for the period 2020-present in reverse chronological order.


  • Brown CH, Hedeker D, Gibbons RD, Duan N, Almirall D, Gallo C, Burnett-Zeigler I, Prado G, Young SD, Valido A, Wyman PA. (2022, epub).  Accounting for Context in Randomized Trials after Assignment. Prevention Science. pdf file  supplementary materials
  • Zhang, X. & Hedeker, D. (2022).  Defining R-squared measures for mixed-effects location scale models.  Statistics in Medicine, 41:4467-4483.  pdf file.
  • Ma, Q. Mermelstein, R. & Hedeker, D. (2022).  A shared-parameter location-scale mixed model to link the responsivity in self-initiated event reports and the event-contingent Ecological Momentary Assessments.  Statistics in Medicine, 41:1780-1796.  pdf file
  • Hedeker, D. & Mermelstein, R.J. (2022). Modeling Variation in Intensive Longitudinal Data.  In A.A. O’Connell, D. B. McCoach, & B. Bell (Eds.), Multilevel Modeling Methods with Introductory and Advanced Applications. Information Age Publishing.  pdf file


  • Lin, X., Mermelstein, R.J., & Hedeker, D. (2021).  Analysis of multivariate longitudinal substance use outcomes using multivariate mixed cumulative logit model.  BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21:239.  pdf file
  • Yaremych, H.E, Preacher, K.J., & Hedeker, D. (2021, epub). Centering categorical predictors in multilevel models: Best practices and interpretation. Psychological Methods.  pdf file


  • Ma, Q. Mermelstein, R. & Hedeker, D. (2020).  A three-level mixed model to account for the correlation at both the between-day and the within-day level for ecological momentary assessments.  Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 20:247-264.  pdf file
  • Lin, X., Mermelstein, R. & Hedeker, D. (2020).  Mixed location scale hidden Markov model for the analysis of intensive longitudinal data.  Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 20:222-236.  pdf file
  • Ma, Q. & Hedeker, D.  (2020).  Modeling of between- and within-subject variances using mixed effects location scale (MELS) models.  SAS 2020 Global Forum Proceedings, Paper 4181-2020.  pdf file
  • Yuan, C., Hedeker, D., Mermelstein, R., Xie, H. (2020).  A tractable method to account for high-dimensional nonignorable missing data in intensive longitudinal data.  Statistics in Medicine, 39(20):2589-2605.  pdf file
  • Dzubur, E., Ponnada, A., Nordgren, R., Yang, C.-H., Intille, S., Dunton, G., & Hedeker, D. (2020).  MixWILD: A program for examining the effects of variance and slope of time-varying variables in intensive longitudinal data. Behavior Research Methods, 52:1403–1427.  pdf file
  • Nordgren, R., Hedeker, D., Dunton, G., & Yang, C.-H. (2020).  Extending the mixed-effects model to consider within-subject variance for Ecological Momentary Assessment data.  Statistics in Medicine, 39:577-590. pdf file