Selected Publications


1.  Gaylor, D.C., Prakah-Asante, K. and Lee, R.C.  “Significance of Cell Size and Tissue Structure in Electrical Trauma”  J. Theor. Biol. 133:223-237, 1988

2.  Tropea, B.I. and Lee, R.C. “Thermal Injury Kinetics in Electrical Trauma”  J. Biomech. Engr. 114:2:241- 250, 1992

3.  Bier, M., Chen, W., Gowrishankar, T.R., Astumian, R.D., Lee, R.C.  “Resealing dynamics of a cell membrane after electroporation” Physics Rev E  66(6-1):62905, Dec. 2002

4.  Tuch, D.S. and Lee, R.C.  “Three-Dimensional Wound Surface Area Calculations with a CAD Surface Element Model”.  IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engr. 45(11):1397-1400, 1998

5.  Lee, R.C., Gowrishankar, T.R., Basch, R.M., Patel, P. and Golan, D.E.  “Cell Shape Dependent Rectification of Surface Receptor Transport in a Sinusoidal Electric Field”  Biophysical J. 64(1):44-57, 1993

6.  Bier, M, Hammer, S.M., Canaday, D.J. and Lee, R.C.  “Kinetics of Sealing for Transient Electropores in Isolated Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Cells”  Bioelectromagnetics 20:194-201, 1999

7.  Bier, M., Gowrishankar, T.R., Chen, W., and  Lee, R.C.  “Electoporation of a Lipid Bilayer as a Chemical Reaction” Bioelectromagnetics 25:624-637, 2004

8.  Cela C, Lee RC, and Lazzi G. „“Modelling Cellular Lysis in Skeletal Muscle due to Electric Shock“  IEEE Transacttions in Biomedical Engineering 58(5):1286-1293, 2011

9.  Cela CJ,  Loizos K, Lazzi G, Hamilton D, and Lee RC.  “On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields.  NASA Technical Support Server  JSC-CN-23313 2011


1.  Lee, R.C., Frank, E.H., Grodzinsky, A.J. and Reliance, D.K.  “Oscillatory Compressional Behavior of Articular Cartilage and Its Associated Electromechanical Properties” J. Biomech.  Eng. 103:280, 1981

2.  Gray, M.L., Pizzanelli, A.M., Grodzinsky, A.J. and Lee, R.C.  “Mechanical and Physicochemical Determinants of The Chondrocyte Biosynthetic Response”  J. Orthopedic Research 6:777-792, 1988

3.  Huang, D., Chang, T.R., Aggarwal, A., Lee, R.C. and Ehrlich, H. P.  “Mechanisms and Dynamics of Mechanical Strengthening in Fibroblast-Populated Collagen Matrices”  Ann. Biomed. Engr. 21:289-305, 1993

4.  McLeod, K.J. and Lee, R.C.  “Quasistatic Electric Field Effects On Living Biomaterials” in Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care , IEEE Press (85CH2198-0) Piscataway, NJ, pp. 383-386, 1985

5.  Lee, R.C. and Kolodney, M.S.  “Electrical Injury Mechanisms: Dynamics of The Thermal Response”  Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 80(5):663-671, 1987

6.  Lee, R.C. and Kolodney, M.S. “Electrical Injury Mechanisms: Electrical Breakdown of Cell Membranes”  Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 80(5):672-679, 1987

7.  Lohman, RL and Lee, RC “Discussion: vacuum assisted closure: microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation.”  Plastic &  Reconstructive Surgery Oct; 114(5):1097-8. 2004


1.  Chen, W. and Lee, R.C.  “Altered Ion Channel Conductance and Ionic Selectivity Induced by Large Imposed Membrane Potential Pulse” Biophys.ical J. 67(2): 603-612, 1994

2.  Lee, R.C., Canaday, D.J. and Hammer, S.M.  “Transient and Stable Ionic Permeabilization of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Cells after Electric Shock”  J. Burn Care & Rehab.  14(5):528-540, 1993

3.  Canaday, D., Li, P., Weichselbaum, R., Astumian, D., and Lee, R.C.  “Membrane Permeability Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Muscle Cells., Annals NY Academy of Science, Vol. 720, pp. 153-159, 1994

4.  Chen, W. and Lee, R.C.  “An Improved Double Vaseline Gap Voltage Clamp to Study Electroporated Skeletal Muscle Fibers”  Biophys. J.  66:700-709, 1994

5.  Chen, W. and Lee, R.C.  “Electro-mediated permeabilization of frog skeletal muscle cell membrane: effect of voltage-gated ion channels” Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 34(2):157-167, 1994

6.  Hannig, J. and Lee, R.C. “Structural Changes in Cell Membranes after Ionizing Electromagnetic Field Exposure” . IEEE Trans. Plasma Physics, 28:97-101, 2000

7.  Lee, R.C., and Astumian, R.D. “The Physicochemical Basis for Thermal and Non-thermal “Burn” Injury”  Burns J. 22(7): 509-519; 1996

8.  Gowrishankar, T.R., Chen, W., and  Lee, R.C.  “Non-Linear Microscale Alterations in Membrane Transport by Electropermeabilization.” in Biotransport: Heat and Mass Transfer in Living Systems,.  Diller, K.R. ed., New York Academy of Science, 858: 205-216, 1998

9.  Chen, W. and Lee, R.C. “High-intensity electric field-induced reduction of K-channel currents may result from Electroconformational changes in channel’s voltage sensors: gating current reduction” Biophysical J. 68(2):354, 1995

10.  Despa, F, Orgill, DP, Neuwalder, J. and Lee RC “The Relative Thermal Stability of Tissue Macromolecules and Cellular Structure in Burn Injury” Burns 31(5): 568-77, 2005

11.  Despa, F, Orgill, DP, Neuwalder, J. and Lee RC “Effects of Crowding on the Thermal Stability of Heterogeneous Protein Solutions”  Ann. Biomed Engineering  33(8): 1125-1131, 2005

12.  Chen, W., Han, Y., Chen, Y. and Lee, R.C. “Supramembrane Potential induced Electroconformational Changes in Voltage-gated Na Channels in Electrical Injury”, Bioelectricity and Magnetism 1997,  San Francisco Press, 1998


1.  Lee, R.C., Pan, Fu-S., River, L.P., Li Ji and Wollmann, R.L.  “Surfactant-Induced Sealing of Electropermeabilized Skeletal Muscle Membranes In Vivo”  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89(10):4524-4528, 1992

2.  Merchant, FA, Holmes, W.H., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., Lee, R.C., and Toner, M. “Poloxamer 188 Enhances Functional Recovery of Lethally Heat-Shocked Fibroblasts”, J Surgical Research 74:131-140, 1998

3.  Maskarinec, S.A., Hannig, J., Lee, R.C., and Lee, K-Y. “Direct Observation of Poloxamer 188 Insertion Into Lipid Monolayers”  Biophys. J  82(3):1453-9, 2002

4.  Hannig, J., Canaday, D., Beckett, M., Astumian, R.D., Weichselbaum, R., and Lee, R.C. ” Surfactant Sealing of Membranes Permeabilized by Ionizing Radiation”, Radiation Research, 154: 171-177, 2000

5.  Marks, J., Pan, C., Bushell, T., Cromie, WJ and Lee RC, “Amphiphilic, tri-block Copolymers Provide Potent, Membrane-targeted Neuroprotection” FASEB J. 15(6): 1107-9, 2001

6.  Borgens, RB, Bohnert, D, Duerstock,, B, Spomar, D and Lee, RC “Subcutaneous Tri-block Copolymer Administration Produces Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury” J. Neurotrauma 76:141–154 ,2004

7.  Curry DJ, Wright DA, Lee RC, Kang UJ, Frim DM.  “Poloxamer 188 volumetrically decreases neuron loss in the rat in a time-dependent manner.”  Neurosurg. 55(4):943-948, 2004

8.  Greenebaum, B., Blossfield, K. Carrillo, C.S., Hannig, J., Beckett, M.A., Weichselbaum, R.R. and Lee, R.C.” Poloxamer 188 Prevents Acute Necrosis of Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibers after High-dose Irradiation“. Burns, 30(6):539-547, 2004

9.  Lee, RC “Cytoprotection by Stabilization of Cell Membranes” Annuals New York Acad. Science, Vol. 961: 271-275, 2002

10.  Hannig, J., Yu, J., Beckett, M., Weichselbaum, R., and Lee, R.C.  “Poloxamine 1107 Sealing of Radiopermeabilized Erythrocyte Membranes”  Intl. J. Rad. Biol., 75(3),379-385, 1999

11.  Lee, RC., Despa, F., Guo, L., Betala, P. Kuo. A., and Thiyagarajan, P. “Surfactant Copolymers Prevent Aggregation of Heat Denatured Lysozyme.” Ann. Biomed. Engr. 34(7): 1190-1120, 2006

12.  Soneru, A., Rojahn, K., Carrillo, C.S., Hannig, J., Beckett, M.A., Weichselbaum, R.R. and Lee, R.C.” Antioxidant enhances Poloxamer 188 Cytoprotection of Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibers after High-dose Irradiation“.   Health Physics,  December  2011 (Cover article)


1.  Lee, R.C. and Ping, J.  “Calcium Antagonists Retard Matrix Production in Scar Tissue-Equivalent”  J. Surg. Res. 49(5):463-466, 1990

2.  Levine, L.A., Merrick, P.F. and Lee, R.C.  “Intralesional Verapamil Injection for the Treatment of Peyronie’s Disease”  J. Urology 151(6): 1522-1524, 1994

3.  Doong, H., Myerov, A. and Lee, R.C.  “Calcium Channel Blockers Depolymerize Fibroblast Actin to Induce Collagenase Synthesis”  Surg. Forum  44: 709-711, 1993

4.  Lee, R.C., Kicska, G. and Mankani, M.H.  “A Three-Dimensional Computerized Burn Chart – Stage 1: Development of 3-D Renderings”  J. Burn Care and Rehab. 15(1): 80-83, 1994

5.  Mankani, M.H., Kicska, G., and Lee, R.C.  “A Three-Dimensional Computerized Burn Chart – Stage II: Assessment of Accuracy”   J. Burn Care and Rehab. 15(2): 191-193, 1994

6.  Tinnin, T., O’Connor, A.M., Tuch, D, Brownlee, W. and Lee, R.C.  “Assessment of 3D Computerized Wound Fractional Surface Area Calculations for Burn Size Estimation.” Surgical Forum, Volume XLVIII: 738-741, 1997

7.  Doong, H., Dissanayake, S., Gowrishankar, T.R., LaBarbera, M.C. and Lee, R.C.  “Calcium Antagonists Alter Cell Shape and Induce Procollagenase Synthesis in Keloid and Normal Fibroblasts ” J. Burn Care & Rehab 17(6): 597-614, 1996

8.  Su, C., Alizadeh, K., Boddie, A. and Lee, RC,  “The Problem Scar“, Clinics in Plastic Surgery 25 (3): 451-465, 1998

9.  Cooke, G.L., Chien, A.., Brodsky, A. and Lee RC “Is the Incidence of Hypertrophic Scars among African-Americans Linked to Vitamin D3 Metabolism?”   J Nat’l Med Assoc. 97(7):1004-9, 2005

10.  Dalal, N. and Lee, RC,  “Treatment of Burn Injury by Cellular Repair”  J. Craniofacial Surgery  19: 903-906, 2008


1.  McLeod, K.J., Lee, R.C. and Ehrlich, H.P.  “Frequency Dependence of Electrical Field Modulation of Fibroblast Protein Synthesis”  Science 236:1465-1469, 1987

2.  Cho, M.R., Thatte, H.S., Lee, R.C. and Golan, D.E.  “Induced Redistribution of Cell Surface Receptors by the Alternating Current Electric Fields”  FASEB J. 8(10): 771-776, 1994

3.  Holian, O., Astumian, R.D., Lee, R.C., Reyes, H.M., Attar, B.M., and Walter, R.J. “Alterations in PKC Activity After Exposure of HL-60 Cells to 60 Hz AC Electric Fields” Bioelectromagnetics 17:504-509, 1996

4.  Cho, M.R., Thatte, H.S., Lee, R.C., and Golan, D.E. “Reorganization of Microfilament Structure Induced by AC Electric Fields” FASEB J. 10:1552-1558; 1996

5.  Cho MR, Thatte HS, Lee RC, Golan DE.  “Integrin-dependent human macrophage migration induced by oscillatory electrical stimulation.” Ann Biomedical Engr. 28:234-239, 2000 (Cover Article)

6.  Lee, R.C., Rich, J.B., Mathews, J.M., Kelley, K.M., Weiman, D.D. and Mathews, M.B.  “A Comparison of In Vitro Cellular Responses to Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation”  American Surgeon 48:567, 198


1.  Block, T.A., Aarsvold, J.N., Matthews, K.L., Mintzer, R.A., River, L.P., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., Wollmann, R.L., Tripathi, S., Chen, C.-T., and Lee, R.C. “Non-thermally Mediated Muscle Injury and Necrosis in Electrical Trauma”  J. Burn Care and Rehab. 16(6):581-588, 1995

2.  Pliskin, N.H., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., Law, R., Malina, A.C., Kelley, K.M., and Lee, R.C., “Neuropsychological Symptom Presentation Following Electrical Injury”  J. Trauma  44(4): 709-715, 1998

3.  Bhatt, D.L., Gaylor, D.C. and Lee, R.C.  “Rhabdomyolysis Due to Pulsed Electric Fields”  Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86(1):1-11; 1990

4.  Lee, R.C. “Injury by Electrical Forces: Pathophysiology, Manifestations and Therapy“. Current Problems in Surgery 34(9): 677-765, 1997.

5.  Gissel, H., Despa, F., Collins, J., Mustafi, D., Rojahn, K., Karczmar, G.and Lee, RC., “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Muscle Tissue after Membrane Trauma”.  Annuals NYAS Vol.1006: 272-285, 2006

6.  Kelley, K.M., Pliskin, N., Meyer, G., and Lee, R.C.  “Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Electrical Injury: The Nature of Psychiatric Disturbance”  in Electrical Injury: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Prevention, Therapy & Rehabilitation.  Lee, R.C., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., and Kelley, K.M., eds., Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol. 720, 213-218, 1994

7.  Pliskin, NH, Ammar, AM,  Fink, JM, Hill, SK, Malina, AC., Kelley, KM, Meiner, BA and Lee, RC, “Neuropsychological changes following electrical injury” .  J. Inter. Neuropsych. Soc.  12:17-23, 2006

8.  Abramov, G., Bier, M., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., and Lee, R.C. “Alteration in Sensory Nerve Function Following Electrical Shock”  Burns J., 22(8):602-606; 1996

9.  Lee, RC “Cell Injury by Electric Forces” Annuals NYAS Vol.1006: 85-91, 2006

10.  Ryan, CM  and Lee RC “Intensive Care Implications of Electric Shock Injury” Intl. Journal of Critical Care Medicine : 2007

11.  Mustafi, D., Smith, CM., Makinen, MW., Lee, RC. “Multi-block poloxamer surfactants suppress aggregation of denatured proteins”  Biochemica et Biophysica Acta (General) 1780: 7-15, 2008

12.  Wicklund AH, Ammar A, Weitlauf JC, Heibronner RL, Fink J, Lee RC, Kelley K, and Pliskin, NH,  “Mmpi-2 patterns in electrical injury: A controlled investigation”  Clinical Neurologist 22 (1):98-111, 2008

13.  Despa F, Basati S, Zhang Z-D, D’Andrea J, Reilly, JP, Bodnar E, Lee RC.  “Electromuscular Incapacitation results from Stimulation of  Spinal Reflexes” Bioelectromagnetics 30 (5):  411-421, 2009

14.  Ramati A, Rubin LH, Wicklund A, Pliskin NH, Ammar AN, Fink JW, Bodnar EN, Lee RC, Cooper MA, Kelley KM. “Psychiatric morbidity following electrical injury and its effects on cognitive functioning.” Gen Hospital Psychiatry 31(4): 360-366, 2009

15.  Ramati A, Pliskin NH, Keedy S., Erwin RJ,  Fink JW,  Bodnar EN,  Lee RC, Cooper MA,  Kelley K, Sweeney JA  “Alteration in Functional Brain Systems after Electrical Injury”  J. Neurotrauma 26(10): 1815-1822, 2009


1.  Electrical Trauma: The Pathophysiology, Manifestations, and Clinical Management.  Lee, R.C., Burke, J.F. and Cravalho, E.G., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1992

2.  Advances in Wound Healing and Tissue Repair.  (Master Series in Surgery,  Vol. 4 Lee, Mustoe and Siebert, Volume Eds.; Andersen, Series Ed., World Medical Press, Inc., 1993

3.  Electrical Injury: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Prevention, Therapy & Rehabilitation. Lee, R.C., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., and Kelley, K.M., Eds., New York Acad. of Science., Vol. 720, 1994

4.  Occupational Electrical Injury and Safety.  Chen, C.-T., Lee, R.C., Shih, J.-X., and Zhong, M.-H. Eds., Annals of the New York Acad. of Science,  Vol. 888, 1999

5.  Cell Injury: Mechanisms, Responses and Repair.   Lee, RC., Despa, F., Hamann, KT. Annals of the New York Acad. of Science, Vol. 1066, 2006