Lesson 03

Pronoun d

The two primary uses of the pronoun d are: (1) to introduce a genitive clause; and (2) to introduce a relative clause (see Lesson 11). The form of the pronoun varies according to gender and number but there is a high degree of overlap. The masculine singular form probably declines according to case in the singular dū, dī, dā. The feminine singular form does not decline: dāti. The plural form is probably the same in both genders and in all grammatical cases: dū(ti). The feminine singular and all plural forms occur with and without a final –t.


masc. singular

fem. singular



d, /dū/

d(t), dā(ti)

d(t), dū(ti)


d, /dī/

d(t), dā(ti)

d(t), dū(ti)


d, /dā/

d(t), dā(ti)

d(t), dū(ti)

The genitive is most commonly expressed through the construct-genitive phrase, bnš mlk, ‘a man of the king.’ One never finds bnš d mlk meaning ‘a man of the king.’ However, in certain cases, the pronoun {d} expresses a genitive relationship and specifies a descriptive aspect of the preceding noun: ı͗l d pı͗d, ‘the benevolent god’ literally, ‘the god, the one of benevolence’; ḫpn d ı͗qnı͗, ‘a lapis-colored cloak’ literally, ‘a cloak, one of lapis color.’ Notice that the noun following the pronoun is in the genitive case, /dū ʾiqnaʾi/.

Independent Personal Pronouns





1 c

{a͗nk} /ʾanāku/, I

{a͗n} /ʾanā/




{a͗t} /ʾatta/, you

{a͗tm} /ʾattumā/, you

{a͗tm}, /ʾattumu/, you


{a͗t} /ʾatti/, you




{hw} /huwa/, he/it

{hm} /humā/, they

{hm} /humu/, they


{hy} /hiya/, she/it


{hn} /hunu/, they

The independent pronouns above are the subject of the sentence. They are the nominative form of the independent pronoun. There is a set of pronouns for the accusative, but they are not well attested. The attested forms are as follows.






{hwt} /huwati/, him/it

{hmt} /humāti/, them

{hmt} /humati/, them


{hyt} /hiyati/, her/it




Conjunctions are words that connect or coordinate words, clauses, and phrases. Here are a few of the most common Ugaritic conjunctions.

u͗, /ʾô/, ‘or’

u͗, /ʾū/, ‘and’

ı͗m, /ʾimma/, ‘or ; if’

hm, /himma/, ‘either/or; if’

w, /wa/, ‘and, but, or’

k, /kī/, ‘because, when, if’

p, /pa/, ‘and’

pn, /pana/, ‘lest’

Nominal Predicate

The nominal predicate forms a sentence with the juxtaposition of nouns or pronouns, e.g. a͗b a͗t, ‘you are the father.’ Word order is essentially free in the nominal predicate. However, certain nuances may exist. The syntax INDEPENDENT PRONOUN + NOUN may represent an identifying clause: hw mlk, ‘he (not someone else) is the king.’ The syntax NOUN + INDEPENDENT PRONOUN may represent a classifying clause: mlk hw, ‘he is the king (not something else).’

A construct phrase can stand as the subject or the predicate of the nonverbal nominal phrase.

     šd ı͗lm šd a͗ṯrt w rimy, ‘the field of the two gods is the field of ʾAṯiratu-wa-Raḥmay’

     šd šd ı͗lm, ‘the field is the field of the gods’


Memorize the independent pronouns and conjunctions.


u͗m, /ʾummu/, ‘mother’ (feminine; plural u͗mht, /ʾummahātu/)

ı͗qnu͗, /ʾiqnaʾu/, ‘lapis-lazuli; a blue color (often used in textile manufacturing)’

a͗rṣ, /ʾarṣu/, ‘land, earth, ground’ (feminine)

d(t), the determinative-relative pronoun

dd, /dūdu/, ‘a dry-measure of rations (actually the measure, not the grain)’

ksp, /kaspu/, ‘silver’

mrkbt, /markabatu/, ‘chariot’

ʿlm, /ʿālamu/, ‘eternity, perpetuity; an undefined period of time’

ʿn, /ʿênu/, ‘spring; eye’

ʿr, /ʿêru/, ‘city’

pʿn, /paʿnu/, ‘foot’ (frequently occurs in the dual)

s̀s̀w (also ssw), /s̀ūs̀awu/, ‘horse’

s̀s̀wt, /s̀ūs̀awatu/, ‘mare’

Proper nouns:

u͗grt, /ʾugārit/, ‘Ugarit (the city and the kingdom)’

tbq (also spelled ṭbq), /tibaqu/, the name of a city in the kingdom of Ugarit, located just east of the city of Ugarit.

ḫḏmrt, /ḫiḏmiratu/, a personal name (also occurs as ḫḏmrd)

krt, /kirta/, Kirta, the main character in an epic


A. Vocalize and Translate

  1. ʿnm dt ı͗qnı͗
  2. kdm dt ksp
  3. ʿbd d ʿlm
  4. a͗lp mlk dt b bth
  5. a͗lp mlk b bth
  6. a͗nyt mlk dt b ym
  7. bnšm dt bd ḫḏmrt
  8. šmn d b kdm
  9. a͗nyt mlkt w bnšm dt bh

B. Vocalize and translate (phrases from 92.2010)

  1. l ḫḏmrt bʿly
  2. tḥm . a͗nntn ʿbdk (a͗nntn is a proper name)
  3. l pʿn . bʿly

Continue to Lesson Four