Lesson 08

Accusative Suffix Pronouns

The set of accusative pronouns is nearly the same as the genitive set. There are a few notable differences. These pronouns attach to the end of finite verbs (i.e. the suffix and prefix conjugations).





1 c

{n} /-nī/

{ny} /-nayâ?/



{k} /-kā/


{km} /-kumâ/


{k} /-kī/




{h} /-hū/

{n} /-annu/

{nh} /-annahū/

{nn} /-annannu/

{nnn} /-ānannannu/


{hm} /-humâ/


{h} /-ha/, {n}, {nh}, {nn}



Energic Prefix Conjugation

The prefix conjugation appears in lengthened forms called the energic forms. There is a long and a short energic form: yQTLanna and yQTLan. The long energic form combines with accusative suffix pronouns such as yQTLannahu (3ms).


The gentilic morpheme {y}, (also called the Nisbe ending), changes a noun to an adjective. There is not enough data to determine the precise vocalization of this morpheme, whether it should be /-iyy-/ or /-īy-/. It occurs at the end of the noun, but before the plural marker. It occurs most frequently with place names, but can occur on common nouns also. The gentilic names can modify a noun like mt, ‘man’ or can stand alone like a substantivized adjective.

mt hrnmy, /mutu harnamiyyu/, ‘the Harnamite man’

qnu͗, /qanaʾu/, a substance used to make colored dye, related to ı͗qnu͗

qnu͗ym, /qanaʾuyyūma/, men who work with this substance

Verbal Syntax—Overview of Finite Verb and Subject

Word order in Ugaritic is flexible, particularly in the case of clauses containing finite verbs. Certain syntaxes are more common than others.

1. Finite Verb and Pronoun

The finite verb contains its own subject in the form of a pronoun, either as a suffix (QTLa) or prefix (yQTL). There need not be any other indication of subject. However, an independent nominative pronoun is sometimes used, likely for emphasis.

a. Verb + attached suffix pronoun (QTLa)

In the following example, there is no subject apart from those contained in the verbs trḫ (G SC 3ms) and tbʿt (G SC 3fs).

a͗ṯt trḫ w tbʿt, /ʾaṯṯati taraḫa w tabaʿat/, ‘He marries a woman but she departs’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 14)

b. Attached prefixed pronoun + Verb (yQTL)

Again, in the following example there is no subject apart from the prefixed pronominal element of the verb.

ı͗qra͗ ı͗lm nʿmm, /ʾiqraʾa ʾilêma naʿīmêma/, ‘I would call on the two gracious gods’ (RS 2.002:1)

c. Independent pronoun preceding or following QTLa/yQTL

The independent pronoun does not replace the pronominal verbal element. It provides an additional emphasis of the subject. This type of clause is called a casus pendens or a ‘cleft sentence.’

w a͗nk a͗ṣḥk, /wa ʾanāku ʾaṣīḥuka/, ‘And I will call you’ (RS 92.2014:2)

It is sometimes difficult to render this explicit emphasis in the translation. One may translate as above, or one may add some type of emphasis: ‘I, for my part, will call you’; or ‘I, myself, will call you.’

2. Finite Verb and Noun

The finite verb (with affixed pronoun) can be followed by the subject. The syntax Verb + Subject is standard in subordinate clauses where the subject is known. In the following example the Verb and Subject are ptḥ ybnn.

ġr a͗gny d ptḥ ybnn, /ġuru ʾaganāyi dū pataḥa yabninu/, ‘As for the mountainous area of ʾAganāya which Yabninu has ‘opened’…’ (RS 94.2965:1-2)

3. Topicalization (Noun and Finite Verb)

Also, the nominal subject may precede the verb when special emphasis is intended, much like the syntax in which the independent pronoun precedes the verb.

ı͗lm tġrk tšlmk, /ʾilūma taġġurūka tašallimūka/, ‘As for the gods, may they guard you (and) keep you’ (RS 18.031:4-5)

Particularly, the first clause of the apodosis in omen and hippiatric texts includes topicalization: Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Modifier.



√Ḥ-S-P, ‘to draw water’

√L-Q-Ḥ, ‘to take, grasp, receive, accept; to marry’

√M-Ḫ-Ṣ, ‘to crush, beat, kill, fight’


ı͗b, /ʾêbu/, ‘enemy’

u͗nṯ, /ʾunuṯṯu/, a type of tax

ḥrš, /ḥarrāšu/, a craftsman

klkl, /kulkulu/, ‘all, everything’

krm, /karmu/, ‘vineyard’

mdd, /môdadu/, ‘beloved’

mh, /māhu/, ‘water’ (also {my}, /māya/, and possibly {mm}, /māma/ or /mêma/)


p, /pa/, ‘and’

ı͗m, /ʾimma/, ‘if’


b, /bi/, ‘in, on, from, by, from (among)’



  1. bnš gt tḥspn mh b nhr
  2. ı͗b . b . ym . w . tmḫṣn . bt . a͗rṣ
  3. w . a͗nk . ḥrš . lqḥt . p . bty . bny
  4. ı͗m . a͗ḥd . b . a͗bk . dbḥ . w . hw . b . bt . bʿl
  5. mḫšt . mdd . ı͗l . ym


Transliterate, Vocalize, and Translate RS 94.2965:15-23


a͗lmg, /ʾalamaggu/, a type of precious wood from Syria

yqḥ is a G PC 3ms verb from the root L-Q-Ḥ, ‘to take’

a͗rt, /ʾArutu/, a place name

Continue to Lesson Nine