SSRC Faculty Seed Grant Program
Launched in 2018, the SSRC Faculty Seed Grant Program provides one- to two-year grants to support early stage or novel research, with a special focus on projects that transcend the boundaries of any one discipline.
Unveiling: How and Why Women Stop Wearing the Hijab
This project investigates why individual women in the United States stop wearing the hijab (Muslim headscarf). Previously, research has primarily focused on women who chose to wear the hijab and how it impacted their identity. In this pilot study, Abdelhadi will conduct life history interviews of women in U.S. cities with large Muslim populations who have removed the hijab. Abdelhadi will examine the circumstances that led to the removal of the hijab and the consequences thereof, in order to fill an empirical gap in the literature and extend or revise existing theories of role exit.
Democracy as Disorder: The Experience of Democracy in Manila and Elsewhere across the Global South
This innovative study is designed to assess democracy in terms of people’s everyday and accumulated experience, or what can be described as “democracy in practice,” in order to understand why, despite strong support for democracy, people in many developing countries remain open to authoritarian forms of government. Garrido seeks to illuminate the underlying sensibility between people’s disparate attitudes towards democracy and to identify the “cognitive contexts” in which these attitudes appear self-evident. Instead of utilizing traditional democracy criteria including successful elections, the quality of institutions, and democratic attitudes, Garrido will combine ethnographic, comparative historical research, and theory building with theory testing to produce a more generalizable understanding of democratic backsliding in the context of the Global South.
Neural Mechanisms of Sleep Consolidation
This project, joint between the Department of Psychology and the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, represents a novel approach to understanding the causal mechanisms underlying the stabilization of long-term memories and provides a new approach to studying consciousness and unconscious processes that are critical to learning, memory, and thought. The research team hypothesizes that sleep spindle induction following administration of dexmedetomidine will lead to consolidation of perceptual learning. The research team will analyze whether this memory consolidation will be similar to that seen in natural sleep, producing new evidence for critical theories of learning and memory.
Assessing the Incidence and Quality of Police Encounters with Male Minority Youth via the Procedural Language Used in Police Broadcast Communications
This unique experiment utilizes broadcast police communications (BPC) to study the impact of policing practices on male minority youth and their communities. Using an archive of Chicago Police Department BPC, the research team will identify linguistic and spatial patterns associated with negative youth-police interactions. The study will provide a novel measure of law enforcement office-minority male youth interaction quality across a large number of interactions, characterizing the prevalence of adverse events relative to non-events. The synthesized communications data is an attempt to determine whether contextual effects shape institutional practices vis-à-vis procedural language. The project also seeks to provide proof of concept for a novel approach to the use of machine learning technologies to study qualitative data in the form of audio recordings, reflexive decision-making by institutional actors experiencing acute stress, and how language shapes in-the-moment decision making processes in instances of high uncertainty. This project will also generate new knowledge in automated speech recognition.
Disguising Xenophobia through Economic Narratives
This unique experiment is designed to test the role of “common knowledge of excuses” in shaping political behavior. With collaborators at the Norweigan School of Economics and the University of Bonn, Bursztyn has formulated an experiment that combines sociological and psychological insights on social image concerns and status threat with economic signaling theory and methodology. The research team studies participants’ willingness to publicly express anti-immigrant views, in this case by publicly donating to an anti-immigrant organization, with half of respondents receiving evidence of an economic “excuse” for anti-immigrant sentiment. They expect their findings to reveal that the group given the economic excuse is more likely to publicly donate to an anti-immigrant organization. The team plans to replicate their findings in a large-scale experiment in WhatsApp groups to assess the extent to which the “excuse” mechanism affects behavioral outcomes in field settings.
Brains and Bacteria: Inter-species Interactions and the Neural Representation of Time
The project aims to reveal novel insights into how gut bacteria participate in the internalization representation of time. By studying circadian rhythms in “germ-free” mice born and raised in sterile environments, using a non-invasive, wireless method for continuous assessment the researchers developed in preliminary work, the team will investigate the consequences of complete elimination of the gut microbiota on the mammalian circadian system. In the studies, they will use gnotobiotic germ-free mice and control mice (mice with a normal complement of bacteria and other micro-organisms) to characterize circadian clocks in the brain and their impact on behavior. The project has the potential to expand the boundaries of what has classically been considered the factors that affect brain function, and will be the first characterization of the circadian system absent commensal bacteria. The studies will also offer opportunities to address fundamental questions about how the clock operates under baseline conditions, and how the system responds to environmental and social challenges.
Street Psychology: Exploring the Link Between Pedestrian Experience and Cognitive Well-Being
In this project, Talen and Berman will examine the psychological impact of varying pedestrian experiences as measured by the qualities of order, variety, scale, and enclosure. They will address this fundamental research question using insights from the neuroscience of architectural objects, public space, and natural settings, and evaluating cognitive effects of urban form at the street-level, from the pedestrian’s viewpoint. By integrating environmental neuroscience and urban design-related principles, Talen and Berman aim to discover which mental health benefits are driven by certain visual patterns, with the end goal of optimizing the visual properties of the built environment to create more restorative spaces for humans: improving peoples’ mood and cognitive functioning.
Early Warning System and Analysis (EWaSA)
Forrest Stuart, Sociology
Birali Runesha, Research Computing Center
The EWaSA research team is building a scalable infrastructure to analyze crime data against gang-related social media activity, develop new machine learning algorithms that classify datasets according to gang affiliation, establish preliminary network analysis relationships between gangs, and expand the number of gang aliases in the EWaSA database. This infrastructure will enable the development of a real-time, early warning alert system to warn school personnel, police, community leaders, and violence intervention organizations about pending or ongoing violent conflicts in a local area. The ultimate aim of the EWaSA research project is to build an automated tool to help reduce and prevent gang violence.
Economic, Social, and Environmental Drivers of Rural to Urban Migration in the Lower Mekong River Basin of Cambodia
Preliminary research conducted by Kolata’s team in the Mekong River region of Cambodia revealed significant temporary and permanent migration of young adults from rural villages to Phnom Penh for employment, principally in the garment and service industries. This migration can be attributed to relative economic opportunities, which stem from increased investment in financial, service, and manufacturing industries in cities, but also from declining prospects for traditional rural life-ways due to changing land use and environmental conditions. The research team is now working to quantify and model the interpenetrating economic, social, and environmental drivers of migration from villages to urban centers. SSRC funds contribute directly toward conducting the physical measurements (sediment, nutrient, and water regime flux) and socio-spatial analysis of environmental data, as well as conducting key informant, focus group and household interviews in smallholder agricultural, fishing, and forest extraction communities directly affected by the Mekong River flood-pulse.
Examining the Social Roots of Youth Suicide
Recent years have seen substantial increases in the adolescent suicide rate and increasing reports of suicide clusters in schools. Despite a plethora of research, little is known about why these concerning trends are happening or how to ameliorate them. Mueller’s previous research identified social conduits for suicide risk based on an ethnographic in-depth case study of a community with an enduring and significant adolescent suicide problem. This project will expand the ethnographic study to multiple sites in order to test the generalizability of the prior findings and evaluate additional theoretical propositions that were suggested by past work.
Criminal Governance in the Americas
This project aims to take the first steps in addressing gaps in knowledge on criminal governance in the Americas. Lessing will begin by determining upper and lower bound estimates of the number of people living under criminal governance and creating a rigorous methodology for improving these estimates over time. He will then collaborate with colleagues in Latin America to analyze and define what criminal governance is, its various forms, its effects, what factors weaken or strengthen it, and how states succeed or fail in imposing a state presence in areas under gang control. SSRC funds will support the Chicago team’s research activities.
The Political Economy of Nostalgia: How Rust Belts Drive Commercial Conflict
After economic disruption, policymakers face calls to intervene on behalf of the displaced industry. Populist politicians respond to public demand for nationalist revitalization by advancing remunerative policies, such as raising tariffs or subsidizing production, aimed particularly at former centers of industry— “rust belts.” In the first phase, Gulotty will focus on the United States rust belt in the industrial Midwest and Northeast. Using a survey experiment, Gulotty will prime respondents with different backdrops to determine how support for regionally targeted subsidies and protection changes with post-industrial imagery. This study will help to determine the electoral value of these policies, and whether these effects complement or substitute for the benefits for subsidizing the post-industrial economy. Results from the first phase will enable an expansion of the project to a comparative study of rust belts in Northeast China, northern France, and the German Rhineland.
A Game-Theoretic Framework for Modeling Early Language Learning
Leveraging ideas developed in the study of economic games, this project will model language acquisition as emergent from iterated coordination games between children and their parents. The key innovation in this work is to model children’s language learning not as a modular system, but rather as a component of a larger system of coordinating agents with a shared goal: to communicate successfully with each other. Yurovsky and Lipnowski are approaching this study from two angles: first, by developing theoretical models to describe the dynamics of communication and learning; and second, by studying the assumptions of these models empirically in experiments with human participants.