Effort, not ability, may explain the gap between American and Chinese pupils
The Economist, August 17, 2017
Whether a teenager grasps calculus is not obviously an issue of geopolitical importance. Yet since the first Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2000, the poor performance of American pupils in the global test has worried policymakers. Not least since Chinese pupils, or at least residents of Shanghai, are at or near the top of the class.