Lesson 04

Genitive Suffix Pronouns

Also called possessive pronouns, the genitive pronouns attach as suffixes to the end of nouns, prepositions, and verbal nouns.






{y} /-ya/, {ø} /-ī/ (< -uya)

{ny} /-nāyā/

{n} /-nū/


{k} /-ka/

{km} /-kumâ/

{km} /-kumū/u/


{k} /-ki/

{kn} /-kun(n)ā/a/


{h} /-hu/, {n} /-nnū/

{hm} /-humâ/

{hm} /-humū/u/


{h} /-ha/, {n} /-na/


{hn} /-hun(n)ā/a/

Only the 1cs pronoun varies according to the case of the noun. When attached to a noun in the nominative case, it does not appear in the consonantal text of Ugaritic because, in this instance, the combination –uya simplified to –ī (or possibly to –î).

Noun in the genitive: b bty, /bi bêtiya/, ‘in my house’

Preposition: ʿmy, /ʿimmaya/, ‘with me’

Noun in the nominative: bt b šd, /bêtī bi šadi/, ‘my house is in the field’


Other than the peculiarity of the 1cs, the pronouns are invariable.

Noun in the genitive: b bth, /bi bêtihu/, ‘in his house’

Preposition: ʿmh, /ʿimmaha/, ‘with him’

Noun in the nominative: bth b šd, /bêtuhu bi šadi/, ‘his house is in the field’


The adjective declines like the noun, for number, gender, and case. The following examples are given in the masculine nominative absolute. The feminine form of the adjective declines with the appropriate gender and number endings.






ḫrb, /ḫaribu/, ‘dry’

mtq, /matuqu/, ‘sweet’

ršʿ, /rašaʿu/, ‘evil’




-tu, -atu



Adjectives can be attributive or predicative in function. The attributive adjective follows the noun it modifies, and agrees in gender, number, and case, e.g. ı͗lm . nʿmm, /ʾilūma naʿīmūma/, ‘the good gods.’ An attributive adjective can be used as a noun, e.g. k . ʿz . b . ʿrk, /kī ʿazzi bi ʿêrika/, ‘when the strong one is in your city.’


The predicate adjective may precede or follow the subject.

špthm . mtqtm, /šapatāhuma matuqatāma/, ‘their lips are sweet’ (RS 2.002:50)

ʿz . ym, /ʿazzu yammu/, ‘Yammu is strong’ (RS 3.367 iv 17’)


Two nouns in a construct phrase can express an adjectival notion, particularly when a possessive pronoun is involved.

mlk . ʿlmk, /mulku ʿālamiku/, ‘your eternal kingship’ [lit. the kingship of your eternity] (RS 3.367 iv 10’)

a͗ṯt . ṣdqh, /ʾaṯṯatu ṣidqihu/, ‘his rightful wife’ [lit. the wife of his right] (RS 2.[003]+ i 12)

Demonstrative Pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns, ‘this/that’, are formed by combining the particle {hn} with a variety of suffix elements. The proximal pronoun ‘this’ is expanded with the determinative-relative pronoun {d}. The distal pronoun ‘that’ is expanded with {k}. The feminine forms of both sets of pronouns are marked with {t}, an element which may be the feminine morpheme or an enclitic particle. The vocalization of the expanding elements {d, k, t} is not clear. It may stand to reason that the element {d} would agree in case with its referent, like the determinative/relative pronoun. However, the other two elements may be static forms of enclitic particles, /ka/ and /ti/.




proximal, ‘this’

hnd, /hannadū/

hndt, /hannadūti/

distal, ‘that’

hnk, /hannaka/

hnkt, /hannakati/

l . ym . hnd, /lê yōmi hannadī/, ‘from this day (henceforth)’ (in legal documents)

An exception to the d/k binary formation, {hnmt} is attested as a proximal demonstrative pronoun, modifying masculine plural nouns, ‘these.’ This form appears to be the particle hn expanded with the particles {m} and {t}. The syntax of the pronoun is similar to that of the attributive adjective, following its referent and agreeing with it.

b . šdm . hnmt, /bi šadīma hannamati/, ‘pertaining to these fields’

As a pronoun, the demonstrative can take the place of a noun in a nonverbal nominal predicate, as discussed above, e.g. hnd . bt . mlk, /hannadū bêtu malki/, ‘this is the royal palace.’ The independent pronouns also function as demonstrative pronouns. Only the third person oblique forms are attested in this usage, e.g. l . bn . hwt, /lê bini huwati/, ‘to that son.’

Interrogative Words

Where? = {a͗n} /ʾana/; and {ı͗y}, /ʾêya/

How? = {ı͗y}, /ʾêya/

How (is it that)? = {ı͗k(y)}, /ʾêkā(ya)/

Why? = {lm}, /lêma/

Who? = {mn}, /mīna/

What? = {mh} /mah(a)/



a͗dr, /ʾaduru/, ‘be(come) powerful’

ḥdṯ, /ḥadaṯu/ or /ḥadiṯu/, ‘be new’

nʿm, /naʿīmu/, ‘good’

ʿz, /ʿazzu/, ‘the be(come) strong’


a͗mt, /ʾamatu/, ‘female servant’ (plural a͗mht, /ʾamahātu/)

bn, /binu/, ‘son’ (plural bnm, /banūma/)

bt, /bittu/, ‘daughter’

zt, /zêtu/, ‘olive, olive tree, olive orchard’

yd, /yadu/, ‘hand’

ym, /yômu/, ‘day’

yn, /yênu/, ‘wine’

yrḫ, /yarḫu/, ‘moon, month’

šlm, /šulmu/, ‘well-being’

ll, /lêlu/, ‘night’

mrḥqt, /marḥaqtu/, ‘distance, far away’

ṣrdt, /ṣardatu/, ‘free-born wife’

rgm, /rigmu/, ‘word’ (plural rgmm, /rigamūma/)

Proper Nouns:

špš, /šapšu/, ‘Šapšu; and the common noun for sun’

yrḫ, /yariḫu/, Yariḫu’


Vocalize and Translate

  1. hnd rgm mlk (second word is plural)
  2. yn b kdm hnd
  3. bt nʿmt bd u͗mn
  4. a͗lp ʿz b šd
  5. lm bn hnk b ṭbq
  6. b ʿn hnd
  7. mn bnš hnk
  8. ı͗ky ı͗lm hnd b ʿr
  9. hnkt s̀s̀wt mlkt
  10. mrkbt hndt bd bnš mlk

Continue to Lesson Five